What is Vitamin B3 Hypovitaminosis (Vitamin PP)?
It is mainly found in large quantities in rice, wheat, especially in their bran, yeast, liver, and the kidneys of animals. In humans and animals, this substance can form in small amounts in the body independently, but the main quantity should come from outside with food.
Vitamin itself and its compounds are mainly involved in the transfer of hydrogen ions in the body, and, therefore, in redox reactions.
Also, vitamin PP is involved in the conversion of carbohydrates and proteins, the normal functioning of the nervous system, especially the brain, the stomach, intestines, normalizes blood cholesterol, the function of neutralization of harmful substances by the liver, reduces blood sugar.
Also, vitamin is responsible for some of the processes occurring in normal healthy skin.
Causes of Vitamin B3 Hypovitaminosis (Vitamin PP)
The most common cause of a lack of a vitamin in the body is a lack of substances that are involved in its transfer and transformation. These substances must be ingested from the outside. They are found in large quantities in corn, which is mainly consumed by the inhabitants of the Mediterranean countries, nevertheless, B3 hypovitaminosis in these populations is extremely common. Endogenous cause of hypovitaminosis – a violation of the interaction of the vitamin with the intestinal wall. Persons engaged in heavy physical and mental labor, undergoing constant severe hypothermia, stresses, diseases of the digestive tract, consume large amounts of alcohol, the elderly – all these groups need more daily nicotinic acid consumption. With pathologies such as pellagra, psoriasis, eczema, photodermatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, the body’s need for this vitamin also increases significantly.
Symptoms of Vitamin B3 Hypovitaminosis (Vitamin PP)
The most pronounced signs of a lack of vitamin PP in the body are during a particular disease – pellagra. Basically, this pathology affects people who eat large amounts of corn, suffer from tuberculosis, receive therapy in the form of isonicotinic acid, and some antibiotics.
The main mechanism of the development of the disease is to increase the sensitivity of the skin to the sun’s rays. In this case, the first occurrence of pathological lesions in the area of open areas of the body, which are the back surfaces of the hands, face, chest, neck, legs. Initially, reddened areas of skin appear, such as those that usually precede the appearance of sunburn. Then you can immediately see the bubbles, the skin above them can be thin, flabby, or, on the contrary, thick and dense. After a very short time, the blisters open, and in their place surface skin defects appear, which gradually become covered with red crusts. The skin in these areas is highly flaky, there are areas of excessive deposits of melanin pigment, which look like more brightly colored spots. Later on, scars form on these places, which fall down above the level of healthy skin. Lesions also capture the oral mucosa: surface defects such as ulcers appear – aphthae, inflammatory changes are noted by the gums, tongue, and throat. There is a fever, develop disorders of the stomach and intestines. There may also be mental abnormalities. Sometimes asthenia develops – the patient becomes sluggish, constantly fatigued, and the overall emotional background is lowered. Many of these symptoms can also develop with a lack of vitamins B1 and B6 in the body. The difference between pellagra is that it flows cyclically, with periods of exacerbation occurring only in certain seasons, most often in spring and summer.