What is Vitamin A Hypovitaminosis (Retinol)?
Vitamin A is a substance that is practically insoluble in water, but soluble in fatty substances. Synthesis of this compound occurs only in organisms of animal origin. Enters the human body with products such as milk, butter, egg yolks, liver. The precursors of vitamin A are mainly found in plant products (mainly carrots, spinach).
The main functions of vitamin A in the human body are to maintain growth and reproduction, the implementation of color vision, metabolic processes of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, the formation of sex hormones, regenerative processes in skin cells, the formation of its stratum corneum, the maintenance of normal immune forces of the body, the prevention of harmful mutations.
Causes of Vitamin A Hypovitaminosis (Retinol)
Causes of violations
Vitamin deficiency in the human body is mainly observed with reduced and poor nutrition, in young children – during a diet about diathesis, in violation of the functions of the liver and intestines, associated with the conversion of provitamin directly into a vitamin substance.
Lack of vitamin A in the body, or vitamin A hypovitaminosis is manifested mainly in the form of dysfunction of certain organs and systems. All causes of vitamin deficiency in the body can be divided into two large groups: exogenous, or related to environmental conditions, and endogenous, or depending on the patient’s body.
In most cases, as such, there is an insufficient content of vitamin substances in the consumed sick food. This can be with a monotonous nature of food, when the content of essential essential substances in food consumed is not balanced. In children, this can be observed with early cessation of breastfeeding and the transition to feeding mixtures; in sick people – with a long and irrational diet. The issue of preserving vitamins in food is also very relevant, which is facilitated by their proper storage and high-tech processing methods.
Endogenous, or secondary, deficiency of vitamin substances is mainly associated with a violation of their normal digestion and absorption in the stomach and intestines. It is observed mainly in such conditions as helminthic diseases, pregnancy, breastfeeding, liver diseases of various origin, if there are malignant tumors in the body, hereditary disorders of the digestive system, increased thyroid function, dysfunction of the adrenal glands, while taking certain medications (mainly antibiotics and other antibacterial drugs). A special group of endogenous causes of hypovitaminosis are conditions in which there is an increased body need for vitamins (for example, during illness, prolonged intense physical exertion, prolonged stress, at very high, or, conversely, lowered ambient temperatures, during periods of oxygen starvation and consumption large amounts of alcohol).
At the same time, there are such vitamin substances, the lack of which in the body almost never happens.
Symptoms of Vitamin A Hypovitaminosis (Retinol)
The earliest sign of vitamin A hypovitaminosis is impaired twilight vision.
At a later date, signs of impaired normal keratinization of the skin and mucous membranes, especially the oral cavity, join these disorders. In children under the age of onset of puberty as a result of a vitamin deficiency, dry skin can be detected, it is easily flaky, and its excessive keratinization is observed.
In adults, in addition to the above symptoms, there is increased fragility of the nail plates, hair loss, increased tendency to increased keratinization of the skin. The same signs are often detected in the congenital form of ichthyosis and in the follicular form of keratosis.
Treatment of Vitamin A Hypovitaminosis (Retinol)
For the treatment of vitamin A hypovitaminosis, mainly synthetic preparations of vitamin A are used. They can also be used for pathologies such as congenital ichthyosis, follicular hyperkeratosis, seborrhea, eczema, purulent skin lesions occurring with the development of ulcers, trophic ulcers. The course of therapy is continued for 2 months, as only in this case a sufficiently pronounced therapeutic effect can be achieved. At the next occurrence of signs of the disease, the course of therapy is repeated. Currently, there are both tablet and injectable release form of vitamin.