What is Bazalioma Skin?
Basaliomas occupy an intermediate position among skin tumors. They have predominantly localized growth, do not metastasize. Pasches, AI, 1863; Glazunov MF, 1933 believe that basal cell carcinomas arise from embryonic ectoderm along the line of embryonic facings.
Among embryonic tumors of the skin of the head and neck area, basal cell carcinoma is most common (60-80%).
Symptoms of Basal Cell Carcinoma
According to the International histological classification, 3 types of basaliomas are distinguished:
- superficial multicentric;
- fibrous epithelial.
The clinical course is varied and depends on the location and shape of the tumor. First, a painless hardening appears on the skin, which then ulcerates and crusts. If it is removed, the crust reappears. Gradually, the ulcer and seal around increase. The process lasts for months, and patients usually go to the doctor not immediately. Localization of basaliomas is quite typical (nasolabial folds, wings of the nose, upper lip, internal corners of the eyes, eyelids, external corners of the eyes, temples). Basalioma often occurs as a single node in people over the age of 50 years.
In the initial period of development of basal cell carcinoma, tumor, ulcerative and transient forms of growth can be distinguished.
The classification by TNM system, as in skin cancer.
Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma
The main factors in the preparation of a treatment plan are the prevalence and location of the tumor. The following methods of therapeutic effects are used:
- using laser technology.
Radiation therapy – in the initial stages of basal cell carcinoma, short-focus radiotherapy is used in SOD 5000–7500 rad (50–75 Gy). The eyeball is protected with a lead plate 1 mm thick.
In stage III-IV, the combined treatment is applied. Preoperative telegamma therapy is carried out in SOD 4500-5000 glad (45-50 Gy), after which the residual tumor is removed within the limits of healthy tissues. Recurrent tumors should also be surgically treated. The resulting, often extensive, tissue defect A.I. Paches recommends eliminating immediately by primary skin grafting. The choice of plastics method depends on the location, shape, size of the defect. Apply free skin plastics, local tissues, combined, Filatov stem. The advantages of primary plastics: a positive psychological effect on the patient, an improvement in function. Possible prosthetic defects (eg, nose).
Laser treatment can cure basal cell carcinoma only in the initial stages and a small recurrent tumor. Indications for use of laser beams require further clarification.
Cryogenic treatment of head and neck tumors is prescribed for basal cell carcinomas and skin cancer. Cryobiological studies have shown that virtually any tumor can be destroyed by cryosurgery. In this case, everything depends on the temperature and time parameters that can be controlled (the merit of the method). The critical temperature for the death of a tumor is approximately – 20 ° C. Cells that remain outside of this temperature survive. Ultrasound can enhance the effect of cryotherapy. The method does not require anesthesia, can be performed on an outpatient basis and has almost no contraindications. After cryodestruction gentle scars are formed.
Complications: sometimes pronounced inflammation occurs in the zone of cryotherapy, bleeding after rejection of necrotic masses.