Symptoms, causes and treatment of prostate adenoma

Perhaps benign prostatic hyperplasia is part of the aging process of the male body, it is caused by changes in the hormonal balance and in cell growth factors. Also, gene predisposition plays a big role. Especially in acute cases of prostate adenoma, when it comes to surgical intervention in men younger than 60 years. Men over 50 are more likely to develop prostate adenoma. But it is not known why some men have symptoms that are more acute than others.

In the body of a man, urine passes from the bladder to the urethra. Prostate adenoma is a benign (non-cancerous) enlargement of the prostate that blocks the urine flow through the urethra. Prostate cells gradually expand, creating a tumor that presses on the urethra – the “channel” through which urine and semen exit the body.

Due to the fact that the urethra is lent, the bladder has to exert more effort to push out the urine.

Over time, the muscles of the bladder become stronger, stronger and more sensitive and push out even a small amount of urine, often causing the urination. In the future, the muscles of the bladder can not overcome the narrow urethra, and urine remains in the bladder, preventing full emptying.

Many men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (prostate adenoma) have no symptoms. If symptoms occur, they range from subtle to very serious. The degree of enlargement of the prostate is not always related to the severity of the symptoms. Some men with insignificant increase may experience serious symptoms. And some on the contrary have not significant symptoms with a significant increase in the prostate.

Symptoms may worsen during the cold season or as a result of physical or emotional stress.

Some drugs can aggravate the symptoms. This includes drugs such as diphenhydramine, pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline spray and prescription drugs: antidepressants, diuretics, testosterone (gels, implants, injections), and analgesics (drugs).

Symptoms of prostate adenoma can cause problems with urination and urination.

Symptoms of prostate adenoma associated with bladder emptying include:

  • Weak urine flow with urination
  • Feeling that the bladder is not completely emptied
  • Difficulty in starting the process of urination
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Frequent urge to urinate at night
  • Intermittent urine flow with urination
  • Stress with urination
  • Droplet current of urine
  • Pain during urination

Symptoms associated with urination:

  • Frequent urge to urinate at night
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Sharp uncontrollable urge to urinate

These symptoms are not always caused by prostate adenoma and can be associated with other diseases. Symptoms of prostate adenoma are divided into 2 types. If the symptoms occurred unexpectedly or if you had one symptom, then another appeared, then, perhaps, this is another disease. Other diseases that cause similar symptoms include urinary tract infection, prostatitis, prostate cancer, diabetes, heart failure, and neurological diseases.

If the bladder can not completely empty, this can lead to a risk of urinary tract infection. Over time, there may be more serious problems, including stones in the bladder, blood in the urine, incontinence, acute stasis of urine (inability to urinate). With a sudden and complete inability to urinate, you should immediately contact a doctor. In rare cases, as a consequence of prostate adenoma, bladder and / or kidney disease may occur.

How does this happen

The prostate gland increases with age. By age 50, 5 out of 10 men have an enlarged prostate. By the age of 80, about 9 out of 10 men have an enlarged prostate. The enlarged prostate does not always manifest itself in symptoms.

With an increase in the prostate, the urethra (on it urine from the bladder is excreted from the body) narrows or partially blocks. Increasing, the prostate compresses or blocks the urethra. This causes symptoms of prostate adenoma. By age 55, 2 out of 10 men have symptoms of prostate adenoma. By age 75, 5 out of 10 men complain of a weak urinary flow.

In rare cases, acute urinary obturation can lead to complications. Including partial or complete blockage of the urethra, infection of the urinary tract, stones in the bladder or blood in the urine.

Each man differently gets acquainted with an adenoma of a prostate. Symptoms can be stable, can appear and disappear, or become more significant over time. Some men have frivolous symptoms and do not need medical treatment. Others are concerned about their symptoms and they choose between medical treatment and, more rarely, surgical intervention.

Prostate adenoma does not cause prostate cancer. But prostate cancer has similar symptoms to prostate adenoma. It is necessary to have an examination with a doctor to determine if your symptoms are caused by prostate cancer.

How to choose a treatment for enlarged prostate

There is a wide range of treatments that can ease the symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate – medication, minimally invasive or surgical intervention. Factors influencing the choice of the best of them are related to your symptoms, their severity and the presence of other medical indications.

The choice of treatment is also affected by the size of the prostate gland, age, and general health. Treatment, which best suits a 50-year-old man, may not fit the 80-year-old. The older a man, the more preferable for him is drug treatment or surgery to ease the syndromes. While a younger man is more inclined toward minimally invasive treatment. According to the American Association of Urology, surgical intervention is the most effective way to alleviate the syndromes, but at the same time carries more risks than other types of treatment.

You can start with a drug treatment, and if improvement does not follow, then continue minimally invasive therapy to reduce part of the prostate. This procedure is very effective and very rarely causes side effects.

If the symptoms really bother you, or you have complications in the form of urine retention, it is better to skip the medication. Minimally-invasive treatment compares favorably with surgical intervention due to a shorter recovery period, at the same time, it is possible that later you will have to repeat the procedure. There is also a small risk of serious side effects, such as long-term incontinence or erection problems, which are less common in surgical procedures.

Each man has his own threshold of sensitivity to symptoms of prostate adenoma, also known as an enlarged prostate. If the symptoms do not bother you much and cause no urological complications, you can choose to observe as a type of treatment.

This means consulting a doctor once a year or more often if symptoms worsen.

Observation as a type of treatment for prostate adenoma

If you choose surveillance for the treatment of prostate adenoma, to alleviate the symptoms, you can:

  • Change your habits a little, for example, drink less fluids before bed, and reduce the consumption of coffee and alcohol.
  • Do not take over-the-counter colds and fistulas containing decongestants, this can worsen your symptoms.
  • Inform the doctor if you are taking a palmetto extract of serenoma or other phytopreperates to treat symptoms of prostate adenoma. Remember that along with other phytopreparations, palmetto extract is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The safety and efficacy of phytotherapy are not fully understood.

Observation is the least invasive type of treatment for prostate adenoma. With the help of which you avoid risks and money costs, as in the case of medication or surgical intervention. If symptoms worsen, consult a doctor.

Treatment of prostate adenoma with drugs prescribed by a doctor

In case the symptoms of an enlarged prostate begin to bother, medications can help to alleviate them. Two types of drugs are used to treat moderate prostate adenoma. Each of them has different effects on the body and has different side effects.

Two types of drugs used to treat prostate adenoma:

  • Alpha blockers, relax the muscles of the prostate to reduce symptoms.
  • Inhibitors of 5-alpha reductase, reduce the prostate and prevent its further growth.

Men with a very large prostate can take both types of drugs, combinatorial therapy, to reduce the likelihood of surgical intervention. However, men who use combinatorial therapy may be exposed to the side effects of both drugs.

How to choose a treatment for prostate adenoma

The choice between monitoring and drug treatment of an enlarged prostate is discussed with the physician. Together, you must weigh all the risks and benefits of treatments.

Ask yourself these questions:

  • How much does the quality of your life suffer now?
  • How much will it improve?
  • How long will the improvement last?
  • Is there a risk of complications?

What should I think about?

Reasons for using medications in the treatment of prostate adenoma:

  • You have moderate symptoms of prostate adenoma that bother you.
  • You have tried surveillance, but the symptoms are still bothering you.
  • You tried to change habits, for example, consumption of less fluid.
  • There is a risk of complications associated with prostate adenoma, for example, urinary retention.

Reasons for using observation for the treatment of prostate adenoma:

  • You have mild symptoms of prostate adenoma that do not bother you.
  • You do not want to be exposed to the side effects of using medication.
  • It is not as expensive as drug treatment or surgery.
  • Between 31% and 55% of men experience improvement in symptoms without treatment.
  • Medication should be taken continuously to control symptoms.

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