Some cases of hair loss are united under the name “telogenovaya alopecia”. Usually, alopecia can affect the various phases of hair growth.
Hair follicles of the scalp do not constantly provoke hair growth. They go through the following cycle: first, the hair grows for two or more years, then for two months there is an interphase, after which the growth phase begins again. At any time on healthy scalp, about 80% – 90% of the hair follicles are in a state of active growth, i.e. at the anagen stage. The remaining 10% – 20% of the hair follicles of the scalp pass through an interphase called the telogen: at this time they do not cause growth of the hair fibers.
Telogenous baldness is the second most common form of hair loss known to dermatologists. To date, little research has been carried out on this phenomenon, so there is not enough information about it. It is known that telogenovym alopecia occurs as a result of changes in the number of active hair follicles. If, for various reasons, their number is significantly reduced during the interphase or telogen stage, the number of sleeping hair follicles may increase. As a result, hair loss or theogeny hair loss develops.
Telogenous baldness manifests itself in the form of diffuse hair loss on the head, which can affect only a few areas. In some areas of the scalp, telogenous baldness can be more active than in others. Most often, the hair on the vertex falls out more than on the sides and on the back of the head. Usually telogenovuyu alopecia does not affect the hairline, with the exception of a few chronic cases.
Quite often hair falls out under the influence of telogen hair loss. This disease can be recognized by the carotene ball, which is formed at the root of the hair. Regardless of the presence or absence of pigmentation, such hair fibers are a typical manifestation of the telogen phase.
People suffering from telogen hair loss never lose their hair completely, but in particularly serious cases, the amount of hair on the head can be markedly reduced. In addition, telogenovuyu alopecia can affect other areas of the body, such as the eyebrows or pubic part.
Whatever form the telogenous hair loss takes, this process is reversible. Hair follicles are able to restore their activity; just at a particular moment, a large number (in comparison with the normal one) will be in the interphase state.
Telogenous baldness can develop for one of the following reasons:
- The impact of the environment, which affects the growth of hair in such an unexpected way that the hair follicles for some time go into interphase. As a result, there is a weakening of the cohesion of the hair and the hair follicle and, as a consequence, the appearance of bald patches on the scalp. This form of telogenesis alopecia develops rapidly and can remain noticeable within one to two months from the time of environmental exposure. If it is short-lived, the hair follicles will quickly restore their activity and hair growth will resume. This form of telogenous baldness usually lasts no more than six months and the affected person will have the same hair density within a year.
- The second form of telogenesis alopecia develops less intensively and lasts longer. All hair follicles can not suddenly go to the telogen stage. However, there are situations when they enter the interphase, as usual, but do not return to the new phase of the anagen in a month or two, but continue to remain in the telogen for some time. As a result, there is a gradual accumulation of hair follicles in the telogen phase, and, correspondingly, a decrease in the number of active follicles. With this form of telogenous alopecia, baldness becomes noticeable gradually, some time later. Most often this type of telogenesis alopecia arises from the prolonged impact of the factor causing it.
- In the third type of telogen hair loss, the hair follicles do not remain in the interphase, but pass through a distorted cycle of their functioning. When this happens, the person is intensified by the process of falling out of short thin hair fibers and there is a thinning of the hair.
Causes of telogenesis alopecia: stressful situations and diet
What factors cause telogenesis? The most common short-term type of telogenesis baldness can occur in women soon after childbirth. This form, called “postpartum alopecia,” is associated with a sudden change in the hormonal background at the time of the birth of the child, which is a kind of shock to the hair follicles, which for a while enter the interphase state. Such baldness can be very significant, but most women quickly restore lost hair.
A similar effect can be provided by vaccinations, a rigid diet, physical trauma, for example, a car accident or surgery, which can disrupt normal hair growth and the ratio of active and passive hair follicles. As soon as the external influence causing these processes passes, the body recovers, the telogenous alopecia decays and normal hair growth resumes.
Some medications, especially antidepressants, are also capable of causing telogenesis alopecia. Often, refusing to use them or replacing them with others similar in effect, can help to solve the problem.
The longer the source is affected by the telogen-induced alopecia, the more time it will take to restore it. To telogenovomu alopecia can lead, for example, a chronic disease and many other factors, but most often doctors distinguish among them the stress associated with surgery and malnutrition. Many dermatologists believe that chronic stress can gradually accumulate a negative impact on hair growth and lead to long-term telogenesis baldness. Studies conducted on animals have confirmed this statement. Indeed, there is a relationship between stress, changes in the biochemistry of the hair follicles and the process of their entry into the telogen stage of development.
While telogenovoe baldness, caused by problems with the composition of nutrition, affects the inhabitants of North America, among dermatologists there are heated debates. There is no doubt that a lack of minerals, vitamins or essential amino acids can cause telogenesis. This problem is especially common among people from third world countries, where one or more nutrients are most often lacking in nutrition. This fact was confirmed by animal experiments.
In the countries of the first world, the usual diets, common among their representatives, rarely completely deprive people of any mineral or vitamin. However, some dermatologists say that by reducing the consumption of red meat and preferring a vegetarian diet, people do not get all the nutrients in a balanced amount necessary for good hair growth and normal development of the body as a whole. Often heard statements of doctors regarding the fact that women receive less iron: they lose a lot of it in the process of menstrual flow.
Some dermatologists believe that at present we eat less red meat, which is the main source of iron intake, as a result of which telogenesis alopecia develops. Other potential deficiencies in the effects of diets on the body of North Americans include the deficiency of zinc, the amino acid L-lysine, and the vitamins B6 and B12. The presence of these nutrients in insufficient quantities can also provoke the appearance of telogen scars.
To eliminate the deficit of any nutrient, you can take special supplements. But it should be remembered that they are also capable of causing some problems in the normal functioning of the body. Our body can process only a certain amount of iron per day. Excess of this nutrient will be toxic to him and, in turn, can also lead to hair loss. At very high doses, iron supplements even cause death. Vitamin A supplements can provoke the appearance of telogenesis baldness in some people, since vitamin A in excessive amounts is also harmful to the body.
Telogenous baldness can arise by itself or be a consequence of some disease. The early stages of androgenetic alopecia (male or female, abbreviated AHA) are accompanied by a strong manifestation of telogenetic alopecia: during this period, there is a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in the telogen state. Some people in the early stages of AHA can have up to 40% of “sleeping” hair follicles.
Telogenous baldness is also a symptom of other diseases that cause inflammatory processes, for example, focal alopecia. Hair follicles are particularly sensitive to diseases associated with the functioning of the thyroid gland. About a third of people who have such problems suffer from telogenesis alopecia. Exposure to toxins along with other symptoms can also cause telogenesis.
Types of treatment of telogenesis alopecia
The principle of treating telogenesis baldness depends on the factor that caused this problem. Short-term telogenovuyu baldness can be the result of surgical intervention. In this case, the best healer will be time: the patient simply should patiently wait for the onset of the natural process of hair follicle restoration.
With prolonged telogenous alopecia, if possible, the source that causes it should be eliminated. For example, provided that telogenovoy hair loss provokes stress, you should try to refrain from unrest. If a deficiency of some nutrient is found in the blood test, the necessary nutritional supplements should be used. The lack of thyroid hormones can also be eliminated with the help of additives.
However, it often happens that it is difficult to identify a triggering telogenesis baldness. In this case, treatment is necessary. Many dermatologists in such situations advise patients to take minoxidil, which is a direct stimulator of hair growth. In some cases, minoxidil works well, but if the cause of telogenesis baldness continues to affect the body, this drug will not be able to ensure that telogenovoy hair loss does not begin again. If a source of telogenesis baldness is detected and eliminated, minoxidil should be discontinued.
Before you finish the story of Telogen’s baldness, you should mention the natural hair loss. Everyone loses their hair. It can be replaced, that at some times of the year their fallout passes more intensively, and in others – less. Studies have shown that people, at least the inhabitants of Northern Europe, lose more hair in the fall, and less in the spring.
This temporary increase in the number of hair follicles in the telogen state is associated with changes in the hormonal background caused by a reduction in the duration of the light portion of the day. Studies conducted on mink and other mammals have shown that a change in the duration of the day affects the level of prolactin regulating molting. Like mink and other mammals, hair loss in humans also depends on the level of prolactin in the body. Such hair loss occurs only temporarily.
Anagen hair loss is a diffuse hair loss, reminiscent of telogen, but progressing much more intensively and leading to complete loss of hair. Most often it develops in people taking cytotoxic drugs from cancer or toxic products, for example, rat poison.
Such substances retard the process of cell growth. Cytostatic drugs are needed to prevent further spread of the cancer, but they negatively affect the cells of the hair follicles, which are the most rapidly multiplying non-cancerous structures of the body. Hair fibers of the scalp follicles grow at a rate of 0.4 mm per day, which requires a fairly rapid process of cell growth. As a result of exposure to the body of cytostatic agents and toxic products, a sudden blockage of the development of hair fibers occurs.
The development of anagenic alopecia is very rapid. Some people who started taking anticancer drugs, the first two weeks of hair can fall out in whole bunches. Since these drugs act very quickly and powerfully, the hair follicles do not have time to enter the theogeny stage, as occurs with the theogenesis of baldness, which is a response to any significant changes in the environment.
Moreover, with anagen hair loss, the hair follicles enter the phase of suspended stagnation, i.e. freezing in time. Hair fibers quickly disappear, and instead of small keratin bulbs on the roots that arise during interphase, they take the form of a feather.
The degree of hair loss when taking cytotoxic drugs may be different. In some people, a mixture of telogen and anagen types of alopecia develops, so that the hair falls out not too intensively.
Some cancer treatment centers try to block the process of hair loss in their patients, using cold therapy. Cold therapy, more common in Europe than in North America, is based on covering the scalp with ice packs or a special cap filled with cold water during the operation of anti-cancer drugs. Cold provokes the introduction of hair follicles in the phase of stagnation until the moment they are affected by drugs. This prevents the absorption of harmful elements of the drug by healthy cells and the spread of their negative effects. As a result, when taking anticancer drugs, less hair falls out. However, doctors express their fears that some cancer cells, as well as non-cancer cells, will be able to avoid the effects of cytotoxic drugs when using such therapy during the cancer treatment procedure.
A number of experimental preparations are being developed, whose aim, along with the anti-cancer effect, is to block the process of hair loss, but fears that, when they are affected, not all cancer cells can die.
Since the development of anagenic alopecia is rapid, recovery is also relatively rapid. Since the hair follicles are in a frozen phase, they will immediately come to an active state as soon as the factor affecting their condition is eliminated.
New hair will begin to grow a month after the completion of the course of anti-cancer treatment. As a result of freezing, the hair follicles are not destroyed, so the hair will be restored to the same extent as before the treatment. However, some people notice changes in the structure of hair fibers: curly hair can become straight and vice versa, and sometimes even a change in their color. These changes can become permanent.